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The article reproduced herewith was written some years ago by a Christadelphian who recognised the unscriptural nature of the Physical Condemnation theory as defined in the Statement of Faith and who sought to assist the brotherhood to a better understanding of the loving purpose of God in the Sacrifice of Jesus.

Although the writer falls short on some important points, his work is a tremendous advance on what is generally regarded as acceptable, and we are in thorough agreement as far as he goes.

We asked for permission to reprint it over the author's name, but unfortunately, like many other brethren who can see either partly or wholly eye to eye with us, he prefers for the sake of peace to retire into anonymity rather than face anew the scorn and resentment meted out to those who have the courage to cry aloud and spare not. Nevertheless, we send it forth in the hope that it may serve as a stepping stone to the Truth to some earnest seeker, and that the un-named author may see at the great day some fruit to his labour.

He powerfully exposes the teaching that Jesus' death was in any sense on His own account, but he fails when almost within arm's length of it, to reach the goal and recognise on whose account, primarily, His death was necessary.

The very conspicuous absence of the Letter to the Romans, in particular the 5th chapter, in his exposition proves the importance of the Federal Principle to an understanding of the Atonement: the one federal head, Adam, brought condemnation; the other federal head, Christ, brought Justification. The main objections to "Adamic condemnation" are:

1) The word "Adamic" is not found in the Bible.

2) It is said to be unjust.

3) It is sins, not sin that we are freed from.

All these objections are answered in the 5th chapter of Romans alone, apart from in the general teaching of the whole Bible.

That condemnation passed upon all men as a result of one man's disobedience is plainly stated, and it cannot be denied that Adam was that one man, so that No. 1 is a very weak objection.

The second needs a little more explanation because of the prevalent false theory of substitution. It is evident from Deuteronomy 24:16 that no man will have to suffer for another man's sin, but it is quite as evident from 1 Peter 3:18 that Jesus, the Just, died for the unjust in that He willingly gave Himself as a ransom. Matthew 20:28.

In regard to No. 3 we believe with the writer, that sins are included, but it is the first sin that alienated Adam's offspring, and which occasioned the need for a redeeming sacrifice. The Redemptive work of Christ covers The Sin and sins, from Eden to the end of the 1,000 years.


A complete understanding of the word sacrifice is of paramount importance if we would desire to comprehend the truth concerning the death of Jesus Christ. Webster's definition of the word is: "Destruction or loss incurred for the purpose of obliging someone; to destroy or give up for something else; to devote with loss."

We are all more or less familiar with many examples of such sacrifice in our everyday life, but the highest point of supreme sacrifice is displayed to our notice in the death of our Saviour. For we read in 1 Corinthians 5:7 that Christ our Passover was sacrificed for us. Keeping in mind the true meaning of the word, we can the more clearly understand and embrace the Love of God, a Love that must be of superlative degree when God Himself commends it to our notice. Listen to the reason for such commendation: "Scarcely for a righteous man will one die, yet peradventure for a good man, some would even dare to die. But God commendeth His love to us, in that whilst we were yet sinners, Christ died for us" (Romans 5:7,8).

How such a love must appeal to us, when it rises so high above all the best of human love that we see in such like things as the love and personal sacrifice of a mother for her offspring, etc.

The love of God being rightly placed and received, we can then clearly understand and appreciate such a statement as this: "That God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on Him should not perish but have everlasting life" (John 3:16). Herein do we see the necessity of Christ's death for the benefit of the world. And why necessity? Because of our transgressions. Having transgressed God's law, we are accounted as sinners in His sight for sin is the transgression of the law (1 John 3:4), and without the shedding of blood there is no remission of sin (Hebrews 9:22). To the Israelites, the prophet said that your iniquities have separated between you and your God (Isaiah 59:2). So we see that the chosen people of God had become in a separated, and therefore alienated, condition because of their iniquities. In this condition they stood greatly in need of reconciliation, if they would partake of the favour of God. Much more we, who are of the wild olive tree, do stand greatly in need of some means of reconciliation. "For we have all sinned and come short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23). But we have also been granted repentance unto life (Acts 11:18). With much rejoicing we can say that we who "were sometime alienated and enemies in our minds by wicked works, yet now hath He reconciled" (Colossians 1:21).

The grandeur and simplicity of the truth now clearly teaches us that it is not our liability to sin, but our sins that are an offence to God; not our natural weakness in regard to temptation, but our yielding to temptation, that incurs the wrath and displeasure of the Creator.

Jesus Christ "was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin" (Hebrews 4:15). A reconciliation was therefore not required between the Father and the Son. But it is we who have been reconciled to God by His Son. For "God was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them" (2 Corinthians 5:18,19)

What then became of our trespasses? In like manner as the sins of the people under the Mosaic Law were imputed to the animal chosen for sacrifice, so our transgressions were imputed to Him. Thus we read that "He was made to be sin (a sin offering) for us; (He) who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him" (2 Corinthians 5:21). God's own arrangement- His righteousness imputed to us. Our trespasses imputed to the slain Lamb. "For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the Just for the unjust, that He might bring us to God" (1 Peter 3:18).

Seeing then that He was without sin, "neither was guile found in His mouth" (I Peter 2:22); that He was the beloved Son of God (Mark 1:11); that He was always obedient to His heavenly Father (Philippians 2:8); He could be chosen as "the Lamb of God to take away the sin of the world" (John 1:29), and truly He was the Lamb of God "slain from the foundation of the world" (Revelation 13:8). His death on the Cross was an act of obedience to His Father (Philippians 2:8).

How such Scriptural languages justifies Him from the accusations so often made against Him by present-day professors of the truth, that His death was needful to free Himself from some condemnation resting upon Him. Such language, as sin nature, Adamic condemnation, inherited sin, and such like are not to be found in the Scriptures. They are merely terms invented by man, which becloud and therefore obscure the grand but simple truth concerning the Sacrifice of Christ. If a man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God. How plain would then become the statement that "Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures" (1 Corinthians 15:3).

Where shall we then look for some corroborative evidence regarding this plain statement of the Apostle Paul? To the serpent was said that the seed of the woman should bruise his head (Genesis 3:15). How this was accomplished is revealed to us in Hebrews 2:14, "Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, He (Christ) also Himself likewise took part of the same, that through death, He might destroy him that had the power of death, that is (sin personified as) the devil."

How clearly the death of Christ is pre-figured in the case of the lamb slain for the children of Israel, in Egypt, that the Angel of Death might Pass-over. To the Corinthians Paul says, "For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us" (1 Corinthians 5:7). All the shadow offerings under the Law of Moses (and let it be noted that the animals chosen for sacrifice must be without blemish) pointed forward to Christ, the substance. For the blood of bulls and goats could not take away sin, but pointed forward to one who could (Hebrews 10:4). What harmony we then see in Peter's statement that "ye were not redeemed with corruptible things... from your vain conversation... but with the precious Blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot" (1 Peter 2:18,19).

Such language as this should make comprehensible the announcement to Daniel that "after three-score and two weeks, shall Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself" (Daniel 9:26). The objector has said that the words "not for Himself," are not to be found in some original manuscripts. But which of the cavillers have resurrected from musty obscurity the manuscripts that tell us plainly and unmistakably that He was cut off for Himself? If such a statement could be found, irrevocable logic would say to us that He was not cut off for us. What saith the Prophet? "He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities. All we like sheep have gone astray, we have turned every one to his own way, and the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all. For He was cut off out of the land of the living, for the transgressions of my people was He stricken. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise Him, He hath put Him to grief; when His soul shall make an offering for sin He shall see His seed. He shall see the travail of His soul and shall be satisfied; by His knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many, for He shall bear their iniquities... because he has poured out His soul unto death... and He bear the sin of many and made intercession for the transgressors" (Isaiah 53).

What an abundance of proof is here placed before us. Surely sufficient to demonstrate to us that the statement to Daniel must stand, that the Messiah was not cut off for Himself. The prophecy was fulfilled. "In due time Christ died for the ungodly" (Romans 5:6). "He was manifested to take away our sins, and in Him is no sin" (1 John 3:5).

Let those who seek to add to the prophecy by Isaiah 53, and by so doing stultify the truth of that prophecy, ask themselves the question that Philip asked of the Eunuch, when he found him reading the same prophecy: "Understandeth thou what thou readest?" (Acts 8:30). Beginning with the birth of Christ, we find the Angel telling Mary to call the child's name Jesus, "for He shall save His people from their sins" (Matthew 1:21). How was this done? Only by shedding His blood for the remission of their sins. And "the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all sin" (1 John 1:7). "And He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world" (1 John 2:2).

Seeing then that Christ has "loved us and given Himself for us" (Ephesians 5:2), we must also love one another, "even as Christ also loved the church, and gave Himself for it" (Ephesians 5:25). We must be considerate to our brethren. "Destroy not him (thy brother) with thy meat, for whom Christ died" (Romans 14:15). How pertinent are the words of our elder brother himself: "Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends, and ye are my friends if ye do whatsoever I command you" (John 15:13,14). Again He said: "I am the Good Shepherd. The Good Shepherd giveth His life for the sheep" (John 10:11). We, the sheep, have gone astray (see note 3), we have each walked after our own lusts, but the grace of God was abundant towards us, "for He spared not his own Son but delivered Him up for us all" (Romans 8:32). Seeing then that "He died unto sin once" (Romans 6:10), we can rejoice in that "we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all" (Hebrews 10:10).

A certain well-known writer has said that it is a law of God that sin-stricken nature is unclean; a thus saith the Lord is not appended for such a bold statement, but for support he says that it is typified by leprosy, in which case there was a legal uncleanness in addition to the physical condition, and for a cleansing there had to be an offering made. Now mark the words "in addition." By reference to the narrative, we find that a leprous person was legally unclean and required an offering to be made because of his physical condition and not in addition to it. In like manner a woman under the law was deemed to be physically unclean when she had given birth to a child; the law commanded an offering to be made. When the requirements of the law had been satisfied, she was said to be clean, but the nature had undergone no change. It was not a sin to be leprous or to give birth to a child. It would have been a sin not to have offered for physical uncleanness, as thereby would have been disobedience of the law.

And here we have the root of the whole matter: disobedience to any God-given commandment is sin, for sin is the transgression of the law. Atonement will have to be made, if we are to escape the penalty attaching to the breach of law.

Although we know that obedience is better than sacrifice, yet God, foreknowing that all mankind would become sinners except One, permitted that One to be "offered to bear the sins of many" (Hebrews 9:28). "God so loved us that He sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins" (1 John 4:10). And now we being "justified by His blood, we shall be saved from wrath through Him" (Romans 5:9). For we must confess that at one time we "walked according to the course of this world," having "the same spirit that worketh in the children of disobedience, among whom we also had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh, and were by nature (or by reason of such things) the children of wrath even as others" (Ephesians 2:2,3). But God, who is rich in mercy, for His great love wherewith He loved us, gave His own Son, "to make reconciliation for the sins of the people" (Hebrews 2:17).

But if, as unscripturally stated by many teachers, the wrath of God be upon us because of our possession of what they falsely term sin nature, then truly Christ would have stood in need of reconciliation Himself. If that could only be accomplished by means of His own death, then it would have been a case of Satan casting out Satan, which Christ Himself considered to be impossible (Mark 3:23). "Physician, heal thyself," could justifiably have been said to Him.

How differently the Psalmist views the matter when he says, "None can by any means redeem his brother nor give to God a ransom for him" (Psalm 49:7). Here lies the distinction between Jesus Christ and us. He was not in need of redemption; therefore, He could offer Himself as the ransom price for us. How understandable then are His words that "the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister and to give His life a ransom for many" (Matthew 20:28). Himself not being in need of redemption, He was indeed rich, but, though He was rich, "yet for your sakes He became poor, that we through His poverty might be rich" (2 Corinthians 8:9).

It is not possible for one who is held to ransom to pay the ransom price for another who is likewise held to ransom. He must himself be free. But Christ "gave Himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time" (1 Timothy 2:6). For God has "no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked should turn from his wickedness and live" (Ezekiel 4 33:11).

"God has not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us" (1 Thessalonians 5:9,10). The words "for us" are synonymous with the words "for our sins." The Apostle Paul greets the Galatians thus; "Grace and peace be unto you from our Lord Jesus Christ, who gave Himself for our sins" (Galatians 1:3,4). Again he addresses them by saying; "The life which I now live in the flesh, I live by the faith of the Son of God who loved me and gave Himself for me" (Galatians 2:20).

For what reason did He give Himself for the Apostle Paul? He himself tells us that, "Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am the chief" (1 Timothy 1:15). How clear and concise is the reason for Christ's death thus set out for us. If the mission of His death was for the redemption of so-called sin-nature, how could the Apostle style himself the chief? There is surely no gradations to sin-nature. But our transgressions can be multiplied. Our offences are many. "Yet there is deliverance from them, because Christ was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification" (Romans 4:25). And "when He had by Himself purged our sins, he sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on High" (Hebrews 1:3). Again we read that after "He had offered one Sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God" (Hebrews 10:12). God being in heaven, this is the place that the Apostle Paul styles the most holy place, where Christ hath entered "to appear in the presence of God for us" (Hebrews 9:24). It was "by His own blood that he entered once into the Holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us" (Hebrews 9:12).

There is no gainsaying the fact that the redemption here mentioned, through His shed blood was for us. Were it for Himself, we are still in need of redemption, and would also be a flat contradiction of the truthful axiom that any that is already forfeited cannot purchase redemption for another that is likewise forfeited. What saith the great apostle; "In whom (Christ) we have redemption, through His blood, even the forgiveness of sins" (Colossians 1:14).

This statement to the Colossians covers the whole groundwork of redemption in as condensed a manner as possible. He tells us who hath received the redemption, what it consists of and also the price paid for it. Let us acknowledge His death to be sacrificial death on our account, and then only can we measure the great love of Christ. "For the love of Christ constraineth us, because we thus judge that if one died for all, then were all dead, and that He died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves but unto Him which died for them" (2 Corinthians 5:14,15).

And why should we not live unto ourselves? "Because Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example, that we should follow in His steps: who did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth" (1 Peter 2:21,22). "Forasmuch then as Christ has suffered for us" (1 Peter 4:1), let us consecrate our lives unto Him "that loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood" (Revelation 1:5). Let us be constantly and fervently looking for the "appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from all iniquity" (Titus 2:13).

If we have believed the truth regarding His sacrificial death, and doubtless this is indeed necessary, that we might truly be baptised into His death, we can then be amongst those who will welcome Him by saying; "For thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by Thy blood, out of every kindred and tongue and nation" (Revelation 5:9).

"Which of you convinceth me of sin?" asked Jesus Christ of His hearers (John 8:46). Had He asked that question in our day, how many there would have been ready to convince Him that He was the possessor of a nature for which a sin offering must be made. How applicable to these accusers would seem the words of Caiaphas, "Ye know nothing at all, nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people that the whole nation perish not" (John 11:50).

Jesus Christ gave eloquent testimony to His apostles for the reason of His death. At the Passover supper He said unto them; "Drink ye all of it, for this is My blood of the New Testament which is shed for many, for the remission of sins" (Matthew 26:28). One of the apostles present at the Passover supper would surely understand what Christ meant, for in making an allusion to the Crucifixion says; "Who His own self bear our sins in His own body on the tree, that we being dead to sins should live in righteousness, by whose stripes ye were healed" (1 Peter 2:24).

One fundamental fact is evident to our eyes, that whatever Christ died for, we have been baptised for, and whatever we have been baptised for, should have been removed from us, baptism is symbolical of His death, death is a putting off, a parting with something. On emerging from the waters of baptism our past sins are put off. We are estimated as having been crucified with Christ.

The people under the law had become in an accursed condition because of their disobedience. Seeing then that "all unrighteousness is sin" (1 John 5:17), it required one who was righteous to be a sin offering to remove that curse. The Apostle Paul tells the Galatians that this was accomplished for "Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us" (Galatians 3:13).

In Deuteronomy 21,22 & 23, we read that anyone committing a sin worthy of death was accursed of God, if he be put to death and hung upon a tree, his body was not to remain all night on the tree, because he was accursed of God. Our sins being accounted to Him, He was accursed for us. Let those who would suggest that He was accursed merely because He hung upon a tree, or because He possessed a nature like unto us, take heed to the words of an inspired apostle: "Wherefore I give you to understand that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed" (1 Corinthians 12:3). We know that our Saviour possessed a nature like unto us, but that is not in God's sight a heinous offence, or a cause of alienation, or a sin.

Let the apostle James explain: "Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed, then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin, and sin when it is finished, bringeth forth death" (James 1:14,15).

A clear and sufficient indication of the reason for the death of Christ is displayed to our notice in the animal sacrifices offered up under the Law of Moses, because they were the types or shadows of that greater sacrifice of Christ. When an Israelite had sinned, and brought a sacrificial animal to be offered as an atonement for his sin, he placed his hand upon the head of the animal to be slain. This action on the part of the one confessing his sin was of great significance, as it signified the transference of the transgressions of that person to the animal about to be slain. God had appointed and approved this action, and the great significance attached to it being that the sin of the Israelite was imputed to the animal.

This proves to us that sins can be borne by another, by having them transferred from the sinner to the victim. After sins were transferred, blood was shed, the life was taken, because of the sins, showing that death was the penalty or punishment due for the sins of the confessor. To suffer the punishment due to sin, the Bible teaches us, is to bear sin. The testimony: "But every one that eateth it shall bear his iniquity. That soul shall be cut off."

The analogy to Christ is hereby perceptible: "By His knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many, for He shall bear their iniquities" (Isaiah 53:11). This was fulfilled at His death, for "He bear our sins in His own body on the tree" (1 Peter 2:24).

The enactments of the law show to us that the penalty for sin was executed upon the sacrificial animal instead of the sinner himself. The sinner by the ceremony, in effect, said, "I have committed a sin worthy of death; I acknowledge my guilt before God, and I avail myself of the means He has graciously appointed for obtaining the forgiveness of my sin by bringing this animal and yielding it up to death, that I may escape the infliction of the death penalty to which I am justly liable, because of my sin, and that it may he visited upon this animal." All these things were acceptable to God for the time then present, although they were but shadows of the substance to follow.

In Hebrews 10, the Apostle says: "For the law having a shadow of good things to come and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year make the comers thereunto perfect, for then would they not have ceased to be offered? Because the worshippers once purged should have had no more conscience of sins. But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance made of sins every year, for it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins. And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices which can never take away sins. But this man (Christ) after He had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever sat down on the right hand of God. He taketh away the first to establish the second."

So we see that the offerings under the law were figurative and prophetical of Christ and His great atoning work. In the Mosaic and Christian systems, the unsinning victim is regarded as the sin-bearer. It is in this light that we must regard the death of Christ; He was without sin, pure, holy, harmless, undefiled, and separate from sinners, yet the death that He suffered was the penalty due to us, for our many offences that God laid upon Him. Seeing that the blood of bulls and goats could not take away sin, Christ takes the place of animals as the anti-type to put away sin; and so we read that He put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself.

Let the honest and truth-seeking reader consider the following passages, which tell us plainly what happened to the person who had to bear his own iniquity or his own sin: Leviticus 5:1,17; 7:18; 17:16; 19:8; 20:17; 20:20; 22:9; Numbers 9:13; 18:22. These few passages from amongst many others will serve to illustrate and explain how Christ Jesus did bear our sins, only, by suffering the penalty due to them - Hebrews 9:28; Isaiah 53:12; 1 Peter 2:24; and not, as is affirmed by some, because He had the same nature or physical constitution as His brethren. Were the physical nature we posses beheld as unclean or condemned, in God's sight, then truly Christ in common with His brethren would stand condemned also. The word condemnation implies a need for reconciliation or atonement. But in vain do we search the Scriptures for any testimony that will show to us that the word condemnation is ever applied to anyone only when he has failed to keep a God-given commandment. Webster defines the word "condemned" as censured; pronounced to be wrong, guilty, worthless, or forfeited; adjudged or sentenced to punishment.

Would any God-fearing person attribute any of the foregoing definitions to Christ except it be on our account? His death was undoubtedly on our account, for our sins, our iniquities, our transgressions, our disobedience, that we might receive the atonement, that we might be reconciled, that we might be saved. Christ Jesus our Redeemer, is the one we look to as our Saviour. His death was our Passover; His death was purely a sacrifice for us.

Author unknown.


As noted in the preface, the foregoing article is, as far as it goes, an excellent presentation of one phase of the truth concerning the atonement; the main failure is due to neglect of the teaching of Romans chapter 5. It may assist to an understanding of the Federal Principle to explain that it is a legal principle analogous to the present laws of naturalisation. By enlightenment we find ourselves citizens of Adam's domain, by faith and obedience we can become citizens of Christ's domain. We were sold under Sin by Adam; we are bought into Righteousness by Christ; servants of sin, or servants of righteousness. One is the Old Man, the other is the New Man. The one is the Body of Sin, the other is the Body of Christ; or again, the Body of Death (Adamic death), and the Body of Life (Christ's body); and we can pass out of one into the other by means of the Law of Redemption which Christ effected by His shed blood.

Through One man The Sin entered into the world (in whom all sinned) and through the One sin, The death (Romans 5:12).

The death reigned from Adam over those who had not sinned as Adam did (verse 14).

By the Fall of the One (Adam) many died, so by God's favour, the Gift of One Man, Jesus Christ (verse 15).

One (Adam) having sinned, the sentence was from one to condemnation... the gracious gift from many offences (by One, Christ) to righteousness (verse 16).

By the fall of one, The death reigned, so by the righteousness of One, The Life reigned (verse 17).

Through One offence, Sentence came on all men to condemnation, so also, through One Righteous Act, sentence came on all men to Justification of Life (verse 18).

Through the Disobedience of One man, the many were constituted sinners, so through the obedience of One, the many will be constituted righteous (verse 19).

The Law (Mosaic) entered that The Offence (of Eden, not offences) might abound, but where The Sin abounded, grace did much more abound, (verse 20),

As The Sin reigned by The Death, so Grace reigned through Righteousness for Eternal Life through Jesus Christ (verse 21).

If the 5th chapter of Romans were given unbiased study, no reasonable person would object to "Adamic condemnation," nor reject the just federal principle which God has put into operation by scripturally concluding all under (The) Sin. To make light of The Sin of the World, which Jesus, as the Lamb of God came to take away by the Sacrifice of Himself, denotes a failure to perceive any meaning whatsoever in a large part of the Bible.

We conclude this reprint with a loving and sincere entreaty to all who read it, to make their calling and election sure by a proper appreciation and acceptance of the Love of God towards a perishing world, manifested in the Sacrifice of our Saviour.

F. J. Pearce.



1) Because of our transgressions. Our transgressions are certainty included, but the primary purpose is our release from sin's bondage into which Adam sold the whole human race. There are two distinct stages of remission of sins. First by redemption, second, by forgiveness when related to Christ, 1 John 2;2. We must be the subjects of the first before we can obtain the second. Having transgressed God's law we are accounted as sinners. If we transgress God's law, we are sinners. We can only be accounted sinners on the Federal Principle: "In whom, all sinned," Romans 5:12. The unenlightened, although sinners in one sense, are not accountable, not being under law. The passage from Isaiah is against the writer rather than in his support, since it was said to the Jews, who were a covenanted people.

2 Corinthians 5:19. The words "not imputing their trespasses" proves they were not sinners in the direct sense. The righteousness of Christ which is imputed to us is proof that we had none of our own and that it is the gift of God. In the same way, trespasses that are imputed or not imputed are not our own but those under which we are required by Scripture to regard ourselves for the purpose of reconciliation; by Grace, not works.

3) "We the sheep have gone astray." This again applies to the Jews under Law and not to those who are not His sheep.

4) The uncleanness following childbirth and certain diseases was not physical uncleanness but according to law. These ordinances, like circumcision, first-born, etc., were to keep constantly before the mind God's prerogative as the Redeemer. The lesson to be learned, from Eden and right through the law, was the plan of redemption without which there is no hope, and those who see no need of, or reject, the federal principle lack the real appreciation of God's loving plan.

5) He must himself be free. The writer arrives here with complete accuracy at one great truth concerning Jesus, which Christadelphians dare not face. The late Edward Turney taught the same truth, which in his day was falsely labelled the free-life theory.

6) 2 Corinthians 5:14,15. How were all dead? It must be obvious that this death (the same as in Romans 5:12) is not literal death, and therefore it can only apply in the legal or federal sense. It is not the result of acts done in ignorance, but of the sentence passing unto all men who come to a knowledge of the purpose of God. All who sin wilfully afterwards will be held responsible to the wages, the second death. The Scriptures demand recognition of the federal principle by the use of such terms as Bought and Sold: Alienated and Reconciled; Bondage and Freedom; In the flesh and In the Spirit, etc.

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